Annual household income was explored and categorized as < $20 000, $20 000–60 000 or > $60 000

Almost every other covariates experienced provided each day nutritional D and you may multi vitamin supplement use, yearly dental office head to (annual or perhaps not), tooth-brushing frequency (twice a day or otherwise not), flossing frequency, age and you can gender.

Data were accessed and analyzed at the Research Data Centre (RDC) at the University of Manitoba using SPSS 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY), SAS 9.2 (SAS, Cary, NC), and Stata 13 MP (StataCorp LP, College Station, Tex escort services in Antioch.). As per RDC restrictions, original sample sizes were suppressed. Bootstrap weights for variance estimation and weighted results are presented with degrees of freedom fixed to 11. Descriptive statistics include means and frequencies with 95% confidence intervals (CI). ? 2 tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each categorical independent variable with GI and LOA. Student t tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each continuous independent variable with GI and LOA. Three multiple logistic regression models for GI and for LOA were developed to determine the adjusted association between 25(OH)D levels and GI and LOA, controlling for potential confounders. Model A used 25(OH)D concentration of < 50 nmol/L, model B used 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L, and model C used mean 25(OH)D concentration. Variables with a p value of ? 0.075 were included in the multiple logistic regression analysis for GI and LOA, with the exception of plasma vitamin D concentration and known risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking. A p value ? 0.05 was significant.


The mean 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI) in the GI and LOA samples were 90.8 (77.5–104.2) and 85.6 (74.6–97.2) nmol/L, respectively. Although mean 25(OH)D levels were above the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency, 63% of each sample had concentrations below the 75 nmol/L threshold and 25% of each population had 25(OH)D levels < 50 nmol/L.

Although not, whenever confounding variables was controlled to possess, multiple logistic regression research regarding GI (Dining table dos) showed that just plaque and you may intercourse had been notably regarding the GI

Bivariate analysis of GI (Table 1) [Ed. Note: All Tables in this article are available in the PDF version]. showed that several variables were significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations below the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency. Participants with 25(OH)D concentrations < 50 nmol/L and < 75 nmol/L had significantly increased odds of having more GI (odds ratio (OR) 1.63 and 1.44, respectively). Those taking vitamin D supplements had significantly lower odds for GI (OR 0.56), while those with diabetes had increased odds of having moderate to severe GI (OR 1.33). Mean BMI was significantly higher among those with the worst GI. Meanwhile, those who reported frequenting a dental professional ? 1 time a year, brushing their teeth twice daily and flossing daily had significantly lower odds for GI. Increased scores for plaque were associated with increased odds for moderate to severe GI. Males had increased odds for GI compared with females, while those in higher-income categories had lower odds for GI than those in lower-income categories.

Girls had lower odds of reasonable to really serious GI, while high beliefs on the plaque directory improved the odds from moderate to help you really serious GI. No significant family relations between twenty-five(OH)D and GI was seen in habits An effective, B otherwise C on several logistic regression analysis of GI.

Multiple variables have been tall in the bivariate investigation from LOA (Dining table step 3). Surprisingly, bringing a beneficial multivitamin or a vitamin D supplement was of this improved probability of more severe LOA. Large mean HbA1c values was basically for the increased likelihood of a whole lot more significant LOA since try HbA1c > 7%. Elderly decades is from the enhanced likelihood of more serious LOA, while you are a living of > $sixty one hundred thousand was in the down likelihood of more severe LOA. No high organization try located anywhere between 25(OH)D accounts and you can LOA on the bivariate research.